Download A Dictionary of Literary Symbols by Michael Ferber PDF

By Michael Ferber

This is often the 1st dictionary of symbols to be according to literature, instead of 'universal' mental archetypes or myths. It explains and illustrates the literary symbols that all of us often come across (such as swan, rose, moon, gold), and offers countless numbers of cross-references and quotations. The dictionary concentrates on English literature, yet its entries variety generally from the Bible and classical authors to the 20th century, taking in American and eu literatures. For this new version, Michael Ferber has incorporated over twenty thoroughly new entries (including endure, holly, sunflower and tower), and has further to a number of the latest entries. Enlarged and enriched from the 1st version, its expert sort and wealthy references make this e-book a necessary device not just for literary and classical students, yet for all scholars of literature.

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If words can fly, so can a song or poem. 14--15). From here we circle back to the identification of poets with songbirds: poets sing like birds, and sometimes they, or their songs, take flight, transcending the mundane life. Thus they often represent freedom or escape from the gravity-bound lower world. A bird in a cage, or hooded or clipped, might stand for any trapped or exiled person. 39--40). Baudelaire’s clipped bird in L’Albatros is a poet. The bird might stand, as in Hopkins, for the soul in a body: ‘‘As a dare-gale skylark scanted in a dull cage / Man’s mounting spirit in his bonehouse, mean house, dwells’’ (‘‘The Caged Skylark’’).

The title of that poem, ‘‘Spring and Fall,’’ reminds us that when the English largely replaced ‘‘fall’’ with the latinate ‘‘autumn’’ they broke up a poetically perfect pair; the original sense of ‘‘spring’’ is now less evident. Autumn, of course, is a metaphor for the phase of maturity or middle age in a human life. ‘‘Then autumn follows,’’ says Ovid, ‘‘youth’s fine fervour spent, / Mellow and ripe, a temperate time between / Youth and old age, his temples flecked with grey’’ (Met. 209--11, trans.

Juno, according to Chaucer, destroyed almost ‘‘al the blood / Of Thebes’’ (Knight’s Tale 1330--31). 1). 278), referring not only to their rank but their martial spirit. 33), turns on the value of blood (the word occurs seventy times): Jocaste hopes that common blood will bring peace, but Créon understands that the blood is bad and must be shed. Occasionally in classical poetry ‘‘blood’’ can refer to a person. 5--6); Byblis ‘‘hated the name of blood’’ (=brother) (Ovid, Met. , his father) (Met. 558).

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