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By Dietz P.H.

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One of these wires is the clock signal. The other is an enable signal. With enable high, each bit is read off of the datain signal each time the clock signal transitions from low to high. When all of the data you wish to display at the next moment has been transmitted, enable is brought low, and the output changes at that moment to reflect the new data. This type of protocol, where there are extra signal lines to indicate when to look for the data, is said to be synchronous. On the other hand, asynchronous protocols must somehow structure the data stream so the data can be found without the extra signal lines, typically a much harder task.

In this case, the unity gain buffer allows higher current draw without changing the output voltage. (It allows infinite current in this ideal case. ) By placing a unity gain buffer on the end of our DAC, we solve the problem of loading. However, the bad news is that while unity gain buffer chips are available, we are not recommending that you use one. In fact, unity gain buffers are usually constructed from operational amplifiers, and hopefully you have some of these. Operational amplifiers, or op amps for short, are the work horses of the analog circuit world.

32 A Pragmatic Introduction to the Art of Electrical Engineering What’s Next? The circuit configuration you will be using is called an R-2R ladder. The basic circuit is shown below. Resistors of two different values are used: R and 2R. The volt2R V0 R V1 2R bit 0 R V2 2R bit 1 2R 2R bit 2 Stamp Outputs gnd age sources shown are the Stamp outputs. As part of your preparation for this lab, you will need to analyze this circuit. You should calculate V2 as a function of the Stamp outputs switching from 0V to 5V in the eight possible patterns.

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