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By Sir John Frederick William Herschel

Astronomer and thinker Sir John Herschel (1792-1871), the son of William and the nephew of Caroline, released his 1833 Treatise on Astronomy within the 'Cabinet Cyclopaedia' sequence of which the 1st quantity have been his vastly profitable initial Discourse at the examine of typical Philosophy. he's considered as the founding father of the philosophy of technology, and made contributions in lots of fields together with arithmetic, the newly stumbled on means of images, and the botany of southern Africa, which he studied whereas making astronomical observations of the southern hemisphere, and the place he used to be visited by way of Darwin and Fitzroy at the Beagle voyage. It was once notwithstanding because the ordinary successor to his father's astronomical experiences that he's most sensible remembered, and this publication, that's written for the lay individual, locations powerful emphasis at the value of actual statement and on averting preconceptions or hypotheses now not in line with such commentary.

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About sunset he approached the English coast, when the balloon descended near the surface of the sea. By this time the sun was set, and the shades of evening began to close in. He threw out nearly all his ballast, and suddenly sprung upwards to a great height, and by so doing witnessed the whole phenomenon of a western sunrise. He subsequently descended in Wales, and witnessed a second sunset on the same evening. I have this anecdote from Dr. — Author. CHAP. I. CHANGE OF LOCAL SITUATION. 37 which he occupies should be carried round, and presented towards a different region of space; he would never obtain a sight of almost one half the objects external to our atmosphere.

Milar cases, with referring the reader to works especially destined to furnish these useful aids to calculation. It is, however, desirable that he should bear in mind the following general notions of its amount, and law of variation. ) 1st. In the zenith there is no refraction; a celestial object, situated vertically over head, is seen in its true direction, as if there were no atmosphere. 2dly. In descending from the zenith to the horizon, the refraction continually increases; objects near the horizon appearing more elevated by it above their true directions than those at a high altitude.

The point B, to which the sun has set, receives no direct solar light, nor any, direct or reflected, from all that part of its visible atmosphere which is below A P M ; but from the lenticular portion P R * , which is traversed by the sun's rays, and which lies above the visible horizon B R of B, it receives a twilight, which is strongest at R, the point immediately below which the sun is, and fades away gradually towards P, as the luminous part of the atmosphere thins off. At C, only the last or thinnest portion, P Q 2 of the lenticular segment, thus illuminated, lies above the horizon, C Q, of that place: here, then, the twilight is feeble, and confined to a small space in and near the horizon, which the sun has quitted, while at D the twilight has ceased altogether.

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