By Harland G. Tompkins
A User's consultant to Ellipsometry will let readers to maneuver past constrained turn-key purposes of ellipsometers. as well as its accomplished discussions of the size of movie thickness and optical constants in movie, it additionally considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and the way adjustments in fabrics have an effect on parameters. This quantity additionally addresses using polysilicon, a fabric mostly hired within the microelectronics undefined, and the consequences of substrate roughness. 3 appendices offer worthy references.
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Additional info for A User's Guide to Ellipsometry
Chandrasekhar, A. S. Vengurlekar, S. K. Roy, and V. T. Karulkar, J. Appl. , 63, 2072 (1988). 1 Inaccessible Substrates and Unknown Films In Chapter 3, we discussed the Del/Psi trajectories for various kinds of films. From that discussion, it might appear that one simply measures Del and Psi and then determines by inspection the value of the thickness. The Del/Psi trajectory can readily be calculated if the filmfree values of Del and Psi are known (and hence N3 = n3 - j k3) and if the index of refraction N2 of the film is known.
Psi Figure 4-4. Calculated curve for the postulated values of Del° and Psi° shown along with the experimental data points. 56 Inaccessible Substrates & Unknown Films also agree reasonably well with the thickness as determined from the calculated curves. The method then consists of choosing the postulated Del°/Psi° values that make the thickness values obtained from the calculated curve best agree with the thickness values obtained from the AES measurements. The "eyeball" best fit with these data was obtained with the postulated Del°/Psi° used in Figure 4-4 above and the fit is shown in Figure 4-5.
The Del/Psi trajectories for films with several different indices of refraction on single crystal silcon substrates. The first 800 Ä is shown. determining thickness. By changing either the wavelength or the angle of incidence, a different set of possible thickness values would be ob tained. Only one value should be the same on both lists. This value would represent the correct thickness. The trajectory shown in Figure 3-6 is for one particular index of refraction for the film. Other values of the index would give different trajectories.