By John English
This publication is an advent to Ada ninety five. It makes use of an example-driven procedure which progressively develops small trivial courses into huge case-study kind courses. the most emphasis of this booklet is on upkeep difficulties, and utilizing object-oriented know-how to put in writing maintainable, extensible courses. application layout is brought through the ebook, with hypothetical upkeep situations used to shoe layout shortcomings. and revise them to accomodate upkeep wishes. useful concerns similar to debugging courses are tackled, and demanding Ada positive factors now not present in different languages are handled virtually and early on within the textual content. those contain exception dealing with, user-defined varieties, methods, features, programs and baby applications. Preface and entry to chapters three and 17 viahttp:IIwww.comp.it.bton.ac.uk/je.adacraft plus all examples and options could be downloaded.
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Extra resources for Ada 95: The Craft of Object-Oriented Programming
Htm (6 of 18) [6/23/2003 8:36:24 AM] Ada 95: Chapter 4 if M < 3 then Y := Y - 1; M := M + 10; else M := M - 2; end if; C := Y / 100; -- first two digits of Year Y := Y mod 100; -- last two digits of Year return ((26*M - 2)/10 + D + Y + Y/4 + C/4 - 2*C) mod 7; end Day_Of; -- 4 begin -- main program Put ("Enter a date: "); Get (Day); Get (Month); Get (Year); Put ( Day_Of(Day,Month,Year) ); end Weekday; -- 5 At this point it is worth mentioning something about the declarations of the variables inside the Day_Of function.
2+2*2. 2+2*2-2. What we have here is an integer followed by any number (zero or more) of arithmetic operators each of which is followed by an integer, followed finally by a full stop. An old programming rule of thumb says that the structure of a program tends to reflect the structure of its input; in this case we’ll need to read the first number, then repeatedly process operators and the numbers which follow them until we reach a full stop. So this gives us a sequence of two steps: read the first number and then process the rest of the expression.
A function is restricted to producing a single result, and only in parameters are allowed. Functions and procedures are collectively referred to as subprograms. Since there is a single result produced by the Day_Of procedure it would be easy to turn it into a function. This would allow us to write something like this: Put ( Day_Of(Day, Month, Year) ); where the result of the function call is used directly as the parameter to Put. This eliminates the extra statement and the extra variable. Here’s how you could rewrite the procedure specification above as a function specification: function Day_Of (Day, Month, Year : Integer) return Integer; Instead of an ‘out Integer’ parameter to store the result in, you specify ‘return Integer’ after the parameter list to show that the function returns an Integer as its result.