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In this section we will discuss an approach to synthesise hybrid nanocrystals. The techniques discussed here rely on the heterogeneous nucleation of some material on nanocrystals present in the growth solution. Nanorods are decorated with tips of a different material to form nanodumbbells. 24 S. Kudera et al. Furthermore the technique for the production of hybrid structures can be exploited in order to obtain nanorods with a very sharp distribution of lengths [20]. 1 Heterogeneous nucleation. It is known that in the presence of inhomogeneities or impurities the formation of crystals is favoured.

Adv Mater 15(5): 408–411 [15] Harnack O, Pacholski C, Weller H, Yasuda A, Wessels JM (2003) Rectifying behavior of electrically aligned ZnO nanorods. Nano Lett 3(8): 1097–1101 [16] Ryan KM, Mastroianni A, Stancil KA, Liu HT, Alivisatos AP (2006) Electric-field-assisted assembly of perpendicularly oriented nanorod superlattices. Nano Lett 6(7): 1479–1482 [17] Gupta S, Zhang QL, Emrick T, Russell TP (2006) “Self-corralling” nanorods under an applied electric field. Nano Lett 6(9): 2066–2069 [18] Hu ZH, Fischbein MD, Querner C, Drndic M (2006) Electric-field-driven accumulation and alignment of CdSe and CdTe nanorods in nanoscale devices.

At later stages of the synthesis, and the size distribution is broadened due to the prolonged nucleation event. In the following paragraph we will introduce the concept of heterogeneous nucleation using the example of bubble formation in a liquid. In a glass of soda water, one commonly observes bubbles being formed on the walls and interestingly one finds only a limited number of nucleation sites, which then generate long strings of bubbles. In this example small gas filled cavities on the surface of the vessel serve as nucleation sites.

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