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Advances in Quantum Chemistry publishes articles and invited experiences via best foreign researchers in quantum chemistry. Quantum chemistry offers really with the digital constitution of atoms, molecules, and crystalline topic and describes it when it comes to electron wave styles. It makes use of actual and chemical perception, refined arithmetic and high-speed desktops to resolve the wave equations and accomplish its effects. Advances highlights those vital, interdisciplinary advancements.

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At high energies the electronic energy loss may be expanded in terms of the projectile charge Zp according to QðbÞ ¼ q1 Zp2 þ q2 Zp3 þ q3 Zp4 þ · · · ð41Þ The quadratic term is the leading one at high energies. It is well described by first-order Born theory and involves only direct ionization and excitation of the target atom. With decreasing ion energy higher order effects become important. They either depend on the sign of the projectile charge Zp Ionization and Energy Loss Beyond Perturbation Theory 25 (polarization and binding effects) or only on the absolute value of Zp (Magnus [55] and Bloch [19] corrections).

Lu¨dde, A. Henne, A. Salin, A. Toepfer and R. Dreizler, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. , 1993, 26, 2667. [61] G. Schiwietz, P. L. Grande, C. Auth, H. Winter and A. Salin, Phys. Rev. , 1994, 14, 2159. [62] C. Auth and H. Winter, Phys. , 1993, A176, 3055. [63] S. K. Allison, Rev. Mod. , 1958, 30, 1137. [64] H. K. Reynolds, D. N. F. Dunbar, W. A. Wenzel and W. Whaling, Phys. , 1953, 92, 742. [65] J. A. Phillips, Phys. , 1953, 90, 532, d and t projectiles were used for incident energies below 40 keV. [66] P.

At 2 keV the antiproton results with polarization lie about 20% above the static results. Furthermore, Sn clearly shows a different energy dependence for antiprotons and protons. The reason for this deviation is depicted in Fig. 4. At large impact parameters negative projectiles repel the target electron cloud and positively charged particles attract the electrons. Hence, in both cases the projectile is deflected towards to the target atom and the deflection is larger than in the static case. The situation is different for the positive ions at small impact parameters; at larger internuclear distances the projectile is attracted by the electron cloud, but at small distances the Coulomb force between the nuclei leads to a sudden projectile deflection away from the target nucleus.

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