By Cesare Rossi
This ebook describes innovations and designs of historical engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a while mostly variety from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from prior to and after this era. As for the very old ones, the ebook describes innovations (documented through archaeological unearths as a rule from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that more often than not are little or no recognized and occasionally no longer identified in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. it's because (unfortunately) many innovations and technological thoughts were conceived ranging from army functions. The booklet is split into 5 elements. the 1st 4 components pertain to yes fields and current innovations typically conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and that could be regarded as milestones, every one of their respective box. The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) within which very important suggestions have been conceived additionally in additional fresh centuries. for every of the innovations awarded, even the traditional ones of many centuries previous, the authors offer 3 parts of analysis and reference: • Written records (the classics) • Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) • Archaeological findings.
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Additional info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present
3 is shown a meridian found at Hercolaneum, Italy. 32 3 Measuring time Fig. 3 Roman sundial found at Hercolaneum. 4 is the oldest one known. Fig. 4 Egyptian portable sundial. The manufacturing of portable sundials was significantly developed during the Middle Ages. Portable sundials can be made in different shapes, in the following the diptych sundials and ring dials are presented. Diptych sundials are made by a pair of tablets joined by a hinge; a tin cord is located between both the tablets’ ends, hence the cord is tightened when the tablets are open and functions as a gnomon.
Roman time has always been approximate. No wonder that even the genial Ctesibius, one of the most respected Hellenic scientists and curator of the Library of Alexandria, became involved in constructing a water chronometer of extraordinary complexity, of which Vitruvius has left us his usual confused description. 1 Early water clocks Water clocks, or clepsydras, were quite common 2,000 years ago but generally they were very simple and not very accurate. Essentially they consisted of an upper water tank that filled a lower one through a regulated water flow; in the lower tank some marks indicated the hours.
6 The find (Athens’ National Archaeological Museum). 48 4 Ancient computation devices In 1951, De Solla Price, with the cooperation of the director of the Athens’ National Archaeological Museum, Christos Karouzos, started a deep investigation of the mechanism. During his studies De Solla Price was also helped by several other scientists with radiographic and chemical analyses. In the following years researchers such as Allan George Bromley, Michael Wright and others who participated in the recently constituted Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, continued investigations of the mechanism, discovering new possibilities in the interpretation and reconstruction of the mechanism.