By Thomas Heath
Filenote: PDF retail from EBL. feels like publisher/EBL have created it by way of taking their great epub and switched over to PDF + pagination instead of the common appealing PDF imprint.
Publish yr note: First released December ninth 1913
This vintage paintings lines Aristarchus of Samos's anticipation by means of millennia of Copernicus's innovative concept of the orbital movement of the earth. Heath's background of astronomy levels from Homer and Hesiod to Aristarchus and contains rates from various thinkers, compilers, and scholasticists from Thales and Anaximander via Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, and Heraclides. 34 figures.
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Extra resources for Aristarchus of Samos: The Ancient Copernicus (Dover Books on Astronomy)
L. i. 23 (Vors. i2, p. 3. 18). 40 Tannery, op. , p. 66. 41 Pliny, N. H. xviii, c. 25, § 213 (Vors. i2, p. 9. 44). This datum points to Egypt as the source of Thales’ information, for the fact only holds good for Egypt and not for Greece (Zeiler, i5, p. 184; cf. Tannery, op. , p. 67). 42 Herodotus, ii. 109. 43 Herodotus (ii. 4) says that the Egyptians were the first of men to discover the year, and that they divided it into twelve parts, ‘therein adopting a wiser system (as it seems to me) than the Greeks, who have to put in an intercalary month every third year, in order to keep the seasons right, whereas 52 the Egyptians give their twelve months thirty days each and add five every year outside the number (of twelve times 30)’.
51 We come now to Anaximander’s theory of the sun, moon, and stars. The idea of the formation of tubes of compressed air within which the fire of each star is shut up except for the one opening is not unlike Laplace’s hypothesis with reference to the origin of Saturn’s rings. 52 A question arises as to how, if rings constituting the stars are nearer than the circles of the sun and moon, they fail to obstruct the light of the latter. Tannery 53 suggests that, while of course the envelopes of air need not be opaque, the rarefied fluid within the hoops, although called by the name of fire, may also be transparent, and not be seen as flame except on emerging at the opening.
13, 294 a 30. 36 Tannery, op. , p. 71. 37 Theon of Smyrna, p. 198. 17 . 38 The ‘tropical year’ is the time required by the sun to return to the same position with reference to the equinoctial points, while the ‘sidereal year’ is the time taken to return to the same position with reference to the fixed stars. 39 Diog. L. i. 23 (Vors. i2, p. 3. 18). 40 Tannery, op. , p. 66. 41 Pliny, N. H. xviii, c. 25, § 213 (Vors. i2, p. 9. 44). This datum points to Egypt as the source of Thales’ information, for the fact only holds good for Egypt and not for Greece (Zeiler, i5, p.