By Dr. rer. nat. Oliver Montenbruck, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Pfleger (auth.)
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One day is therefore the alternation of light and dark, which is determined by the Sun, and 24 hours are the amount of time, on average, between one meridian passage of the Sun and the next. If, however, we measure the corresponding interval for a star, we find that this takes only 23h56m4~091. This shorter period, known as a sidereal day in distinction to a solar day, is exactly the duration of one rotation of the Earth. The cause of the difference of about 4m arises from the Earth's year-long orbit around the Sun.
Refraction our nearest neighbour, on the other hand, the horizontal parallax amounts to the no longer insignificant amount of 7rMoon . (6378 km) 384400 km = arcsm ~ 57 I We can already see that for calculating rising and setting times we must use the topocentric altitude rather than the geocentric one. Before that, however, yet another effect must be described. In passing from the vacuum of space into the optically denser atmosphere of the Earth, rays of light are deviated, in accordance with the law of refraction, towards the vertical (see Fig.
0; END; 28 2. Coordinate Systems (*-----------------------------------------------------------------------*) PROCEDURE GETINP (VAR I,Y,Z,TEQI:REAL;VAR ECLIPT:BOOLEAN); VAR I,D,M INTEGER; L,B,R,S: REAL; BEG IN (* GETINP *) WRITELN; ,) ; WRITELN( , COCO: coordinate conversion ,) ; WRITELN( , version 93/07/01 ,) ; WRITELN( , (c) 1993 Thomas Pfleger, Oliver Montenbruck WRITELN; WRITELN (, Coordinate input: please select format required '); WRITELN; WRITELN (, 1 ecliptic 2 ecliptic polar'); cartesian WRlTELN (, 3 equatorial cartesian 4 equatorial polar'); WRITELN; WRITE (' ,); READLN (I); WRITELN; CASE I OF 1: BEGIN WRITE (, Coordinates (x y z)?