By George Tsebelis
This e-book issues out that the interplay among the chambers in bicameral legislatures is principal to realizing habit in every one chamber, some extent ignored in earlier experiences. It surveys bicameral associations from a variety of international locations and offers types that designate the importance of other institutional preparations. those hypotheses are illustrated and demonstrated with info from the French 5th Republic, and supplemented with information from Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the U.S., and the eu Union.
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Extra info for Bicameralism (Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions)
Since then, various factors have intervened to bifurcate the institutional development and the intellectual analysis of bicameralism. 4 2 In Tsebelis (1990) two different kind of institutions are defined, "efficient" institutions, which improve the outcomes for all interests involved, and "redistributive" institutions, which promote the interests of some actors at the expense of others. We will expand on this discussion in Chapter 3. 3 As noted below, the substantive meaning of "quality" differs between early Greek and Roman philosophers and modern democratic analysts.
12 According to this line of reasoning, the various interests served to balance each other, to prevent the degeneration of the political system into either tyranny or anarchy. Aristotle describes the degenerate forms of the three simple governments: The deviation forms of government are as follows: of kingship, tyranny; of aristocracy, oligarchy; of polity, democracy. For tyranny is the rule of a monarch who has only his own interest at heart, oligarchy has in view the interest of the well-todo; democracy, of the have-nots.
3 As noted below, the substantive meaning of "quality" differs between early Greek and Roman philosophers and modern democratic analysts. See note 5. 4 More recent, formal models of bicameral legislatures do acknowledge the connection between the efficient and political dimensions. , Riker (1992a, 1992b) and Buchanan and Tullock (1962). 16 Bicameralism in historical perspective In the intellectual history of bicameralism that follows, we focus our analysis on these two dimensions. 2 . PRE-BICAMERAL INSTITUTIONS IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME Although bicameral legislatures in the contemporary sense are absent from ancient Greece and other contemporaneous Mediterranean cultures, some political entities of that era created representative institutions to govern the polity.