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By Hitoshi Shichi (Auth.)

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Stryer, L. Fluorescence energy transfer as a spectroscopic ruler. Annu. Rev. Bochem. 47, 819-846 (1978). 12. Röhlich, P. Photoreceptor membrane carbohydrate on the intradiscal surface of retinal rod disks. Nature (London) 263, 789-791 (1976). 13. Adams, A. J . , and Shichi, H . Concanavalin A binding to rod outer segment membranes: Usefulness for preparation of intact disks. Exp. Eye Res. 27, 595-605 (1978). 14. Shichi, H . , Adams, A . J . , and Kobata, A . The oligosaccharide moiety of rhodopsin—Its structure and cellular location.

T h e freeze-fracture technique shows that the Ρ face has a rough appearance and contains globular particles (rhodopsin), whereas the Ε face is relatively smooth (23). This indicates that a large portion of the rhodopsin mass is located in the external (cytoplasmic) half of the lipid bilayer. From these results, rhodopsin is v i s u a l i z e d as a transmembrane protein that buries its substantial mass in the external half of the bilayer (Fig. 6). By i m m u n o c y tochemical techniques with antibodies against rhodopsin, rhodopsin is localized in the outer segment plasma membrane and possibly also in the region of the inner segment plasma membrane that is vicinal to the base of the connecting c i l i u m (24,25).

Slater, T. F. Lipid peroxidation. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 10, 70-71 (1982). 47. Hall, M. O . , and Hall, D. O . Superoxide dismutase of bovine and frog outer segments. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67, 1199-1204 (1975). 48. Dilley, R. , and McConnell, D. G . Alpha-tocopherol in the retinal outer segment of bovine eyes. /. Membr. Biol. 2, 317-323 (1970). 49. Kagan, V. , Shvedova, A. A. Novikov, Κ. N . , and Kozlov, Y . P. Light-induced free radical oxidation of membrane lipids in photoreceptors of frog retina.

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