By Charles G. Gross
Charles G. Gross is an experimental neuroscientist who focuses on mind mechanisms in imaginative and prescient. he's additionally fascinated about the background of his box. In those stories describing the expansion of information concerning the mind from the early Egyptians and Greeks to the current time, he makes an attempt to respond to the query of ways the self-discipline of neuroscience advanced into its glossy incarnation in the course of the twists and turns of history.
The first essay tells the tale of the visible cortex, from the 1st written point out of the mind through the Egyptians, to the philosophical and physiological experiences by way of the Greeks, to the darkish a long time and the Renaissance, and at last, to the fashionable paintings of Hubel and Wiesel. the second one essay makes a speciality of Leonardo da Vinci's appealing anatomical paintings at the mind and the attention: was once Leonardo drawing the physique saw, the physique remembered, the physique examine, or his personal dissections? The 3rd essay derives from the query of even if there could be a completely theoretical biology or biologist; it highlights the paintings of Emanuel Swedenborg, the eighteenth-century Swedish mystic who used to be 200 years prior to his time. The fourth essay includes a secret: how did the mostly neglected mind constitution known as the "hippocampus minor" turn out to be, and why was once it so vital within the controversies that swirled approximately Darwin's theories? the ultimate essay describes the invention of the visible capabilities of the temporal and parietal lobes. the writer strains either advancements to nineteenth-century observations of the impression of temporal and parietal lesions in monkeys -- observations that have been forgotten and in this case rediscovered.
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Additional resources for Brain, Vision, Memory: Tales in the History of Neuroscience
The ears are located on the sides of the head to hear sounds from all directions. In any case, some animals hear and smell but do not have these organs in their head. Furthermore, sense organs are in the head because the blood is especially pure in the head region, which makes for more precise sensation. Galen and many subsequent historians of medicine were somewhat unfair in maintaining that Aristotle simply dismissed the brain as cold and wet. Rather, for Aristotle the brain was second only to the heart in importance and was essential to the functioning of the heart.
The second or middle cell was the site of cognitive processes: reasoning, judgment, and thought. 7). 59 By the tenth century the original static localization shifted to a more dynamic process analogous to digestion. Sensory inputs were made into images in the ªrst cell and were then transferred to the second cell, whose central location made it warmer, appropriate for further processing (cf. digestion) into cognition. 5 Title page of the Omnia Opera of Galen published in 1541 in Venice. Among the famous anatomists who edited parts of this edition were John Caius, ªrst Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; John Linacre, founder of the Royal College of Physicians; Jacob Syvius, Vesalius’s teacher in Paris and later his archrival; and Vesalius himself, who edited the centrally important On Anatomical Procedures, among other Galenic works in the collection.
12 Ventral view of the brain from Willis, Cerebri Anatomie (1664), drawn by Christopher Wren. Note the detailed drawing and labeling of the cranial nerves and basal brain structures (including the circle of Willis) in contrast to the vague and partially obscured representation of the cerebral cortex, all of which has the single designation A. This schematic and stylized treatment of the cortex was characteristic of all of Willis’s illustrations, although he took relatively more interest in the cortex than most others in the surrounding centuries.