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By Rajeshwar Trikha

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The images or metaphors used dealt with the roles of public I Bureaucratic Theories 33 administrators in the political system if they wanted to gain more le~timacy. Examples included the 'phronemos' (practical reasoner), a member of the 'democratic elite', the 'steward' and the 'responsible actor'. Other contributors discussed the challenges to Public Administration as a field: It should be understood in terms of icons like the 'pyramid' (old PA) and the 'circle' (new PA), or how to include the wisdom of the public administrators into the processes-a task far beyond technical rationality and requiring interpretive and critical skills.

Subordinates comply with this form of power out of obedience to authority, loyalty to the organisation, or Bureaucratic Leadership 57 respect for the hierarchical structure. In some way, they recognise the legitimacy of the authority. Membership in an organisation can be viewed as a form of a "social contract", where members agree to the rules in return for the benefits of membership. Power derived from personal attributes comes from the interactions of a person with other members of the organisation.

The stages in a process are performed in their natural order. Work is performed where it is best done-some parts of the process may thus be out-sourced. The volume of checking and control of separate ta:sks is reduced. There is total compatibility between processes,· the nature of jobs and structure, management methods, and the organisation's values and beliefs. IT is recognised and exploited as offering many opportunities for the redesign of the work systems and Bureaucratic Theories 43 the provision of information to enhance devolved decision-making.

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