By Gabriele Centi, Rutger A.van Santen
With its specialize in catalysis and addressing extremely popular and well timed issues with major implications for our destiny lives, this can be a white e-book within the field.The authority in the back of this functional paintings is the IDECAT community of Excellence, and the authors the following define how using catalysis will advertise the extra wide use of renewable feedstocks in chemical and effort construction. They current the newest purposes, their applicability and effects, making this a prepared reference for researchers and engineers operating in catalysis, chemistry, and commercial approaches wishing to investigate concepts, outlooks and possibilities within the box.
Read Online or Download Catalysis for Renewables: From Feedstock to Energy Production PDF
Similar chemistry books
Prior to now fifteen years there was a dramatic bring up within the variety of diversified surfaces whose buildings were made up our minds experimentally. for instance, while in 1979 there have been purely 25 recorded adsorption buildings, to this point there are greater than 250. This quantity is accordingly a well timed evaluation of the cutting-edge during this dynamic box.
This publication is pretty well to the purpose, with out placing every thing into riddles and beating round the bush to confuse you.
- Atmospheric Chemistry of Chlorine and Sulfur Compounds: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 4-6, 1957
- Inclusion Polymers
- Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology New Products and New Areas of Bioprocess Engineering
- Theoretical Chemistry and Physics of Heavy and Superheavy Elements
- Reaktionen und Synthesen im organisch-chemischen Praktikum und Forschungslaboratorium
- Elastomer Stereospecific Polymerization
Additional info for Catalysis for Renewables: From Feedstock to Energy Production
2 Sugar Derivatives In some cases, the hydrolysis reaction liberates the sugars from the biomass and converts them directly into derivatives such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and/or levulinic acid. These derivatives can be further converted into various chemical intermediates. , for furfural [15, 44], hydroxymethyl furfural [15, 44, 50] and levulinic acid [15, 44–47]. In other cases, the hydrolysis reaction leads to sugar mixtures, which can subsequently be converted into various derivatives through chemical or biological conversion.
However, they often deteriorate properties of the fuel. Oxygenates lower the energy content of the fuels and, thereby, increase its consumption. They may show a limited solubility in the hydrocarbon mixture and show incompatibilities with the materials used in fuel distribution and car fuel lines. Because of their poor solubility in hydrocarbons, light oxygenates will also lead to excessive volatility of the fuels. This is, for instance, the case for ethanol in gasoline. All these considerations show that biomass needs to be deeply deoxygenated before entering the present fuel pool.
The present chapter addresses the various chemistries and technologies that are being explored to valorize lignocellulosic biomass. , the pyrolysis to char, bio-crude or gas; the gasiﬁcation to syngas and its subsequent conversion into alkanes or methanol; the hydrolysis to sugar, furfural and levulinic acid; the fermentation to ethanol, biogas and biochemical. The economics of biomass conversion needs to be considered as well, for the production costs of biofuels typically amount to $ 60–120 per barrel of oil equivalent.