Download Catalysis for Renewables: From Feedstock to Energy by Gabriele Centi, Rutger A.van Santen PDF

By Gabriele Centi, Rutger A.van Santen

With its specialize in catalysis and addressing extremely popular and well timed issues with major implications for our destiny lives, this can be a white e-book within the field.The authority in the back of this functional paintings is the IDECAT community of Excellence, and the authors the following define how using catalysis will advertise the extra wide use of renewable feedstocks in chemical and effort construction. They current the newest purposes, their applicability and effects, making this a prepared reference for researchers and engineers operating in catalysis, chemistry, and commercial approaches wishing to investigate concepts, outlooks and possibilities within the box.

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2 Sugar Derivatives In some cases, the hydrolysis reaction liberates the sugars from the biomass and converts them directly into derivatives such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and/or levulinic acid. These derivatives can be further converted into various chemical intermediates. , for furfural [15, 44], hydroxymethyl furfural [15, 44, 50] and levulinic acid [15, 44–47]. In other cases, the hydrolysis reaction leads to sugar mixtures, which can subsequently be converted into various derivatives through chemical or biological conversion.

However, they often deteriorate properties of the fuel. Oxygenates lower the energy content of the fuels and, thereby, increase its consumption. They may show a limited solubility in the hydrocarbon mixture and show incompatibilities with the materials used in fuel distribution and car fuel lines. Because of their poor solubility in hydrocarbons, light oxygenates will also lead to excessive volatility of the fuels. This is, for instance, the case for ethanol in gasoline. All these considerations show that biomass needs to be deeply deoxygenated before entering the present fuel pool.

The present chapter addresses the various chemistries and technologies that are being explored to valorize lignocellulosic biomass. ,  the pyrolysis to char, bio-crude or gas; the gasification to syngas and its subsequent conversion into alkanes or methanol;  the hydrolysis to sugar, furfural and levulinic acid;  the fermentation to ethanol, biogas and biochemical.  The economics of biomass conversion needs to be considered as well, for the production costs of biofuels typically amount to $ 60–120 per barrel of oil equivalent.

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