Download Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation by Alison Gopnik, Laura Schulz PDF

By Alison Gopnik, Laura Schulz

Knowing causal constitution is a relevant activity of human cognition. Causal studying underpins the improvement of our strategies and different types, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for making plans, mind's eye and inference. over the past few years, there was an interdisciplinary revolution in our figuring out of studying and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have found new mechanisms for studying the causal constitution of the realm. This new paintings offers a rigorous, formal foundation for idea theories of thoughts and cognitive improvement, and in addition, the causal studying mechanisms it has exposed cross dramatically past the conventional mechanisms of either nativist theories, akin to modularity theories, and empiricist ones, resembling organization or connectionism.

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Additional resources for Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

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2. Do people learn and reason in accord with the normative requirements of the interventionist account? I assume that the answer to Question 1 is almost certainly no for most people without special training. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence that the answer to Question 2 is yes, for many people at least some of the time. ) more readily than those who rely on passive looking. Moreover, in at least some situations a significant number of subjects (although by no means all) intervene optimally when given a choice among which interventions to perform, choosing those interventions that are maximally informative.

192). These results suggest that both instrumental learning in rats and human judgments of causal strength (as well as actions based on this) behave as though they track the perceived degree of control or manipulative efficacy of the instrumental action over the outcome, which is what one would expect on an interventionist account on causation. 8 This is contrary to what some (psychologized) versions of causal process/mechanism theories seem to imply. Causal Judgment and Interventionist Counterfactuals I noted that interventionist theories are just one species of the more general category of difference-making theories.

There was little evidence that the apes were able to reason hypothetically about what would happen if they were to create this or that structure, without actually creating the structures in question, and then use this reasoning to guide their actions in the way that, for example, the children in Harris’s experiments were able to reason. In another series of experiments, conducted by Visalberghi and Trinca (1989), a desirable food item was placed in a transparent hollow tube, and the animals were given various tools that might be used to push it out.

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