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By Thomas J. Heinze and Wolfgang G. Glasser (Eds.)

content material: The function of novel solvents and resolution complexes for the practise of hugely engineered cellulose derivatives / Thomas Heinze and Wolfgang G. Glasser --
Regiocontrol in cellulose chemistry : rules and examples of etherification and esterification / D.O. Klemm --
Long-chain cellulose esters : practise, houses, and point of view / Kevin J. Edgar, Thomas J. Pecorini, and Wolfgang G. Glasser --
brought about section separation : a brand new synthesis inspiration in cellulose chemistry / T. Liebert and Thomas Heinze --
tools for the selective oxidation of cellulose : instruction of 2,3-dicarboxycellulose and 6-carboxycellulose / A.C. Besemer, A.E.J. de Nooy, and H. van Bekkum --
response of bromodeoxycellulose / N. Aoki, M. Sakamoto, and ok. Furuhata --
Cationization of cellulose fibers in view of purposes within the paper / E. Gruber, C. Granzow, and Th. Ott --
A initial research of carbamoylethylated ramie / C.C.L. Poon, Y.S. Szeto, W.K. Lee, W.L. Chan, and C.W. Yip --
Characterization of polysaccharide derivatives with admire to substituent distribution within the monomer unit and the polymer chain / Petra Mischnick --
Characterization of cellulose esters by way of solution-state and solid-state NMR spectroscopy / Douglas W. Lowman --
13C NMR structural learn on cellulose derivatives with carbonyl teams as a delicate probe / Y. Tezuka --
Novel techniques utilizing FTIR spectroscopy to check the constitution of crystalline and noncrystalline cellulose / T. Kondo, Y. Kataoka, and Y. Hishikawa --
Molecular weights and molecular-weight distributions of cellulose and cellulose nitrates in the course of ultrasonic and mechanical degradation / Marianne Marx-Figini --
Depolymerization of cellulose and cellulose triacetate in traditional acetylation procedure / Shu Shimamoto, Takayuki Kohmoto, and Tohru Shibata --
growth within the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose derivatives / B. Saake, St. Horner, and J. Puls --
facts of supramolecular buildings of cellulose derivatives in answer / Liane Schulz, Walther Burchard, and Reinhard Dönges --
section habit, constitution, and houses of regioselectively substituted cellulose derivatives within the liquid-crystalline nation / Peter Zugenmaier and Christina Derleth --
Blends of cellulose and artificial polymers / R. St. J. Manley --
experiences of the molecular interplay among cellulose and lignin as a version for the hierarchical constitution of wooden / Wolfgang G. Glasser, Timothy G. Rials, Stephen S. Kelley, and Vipul Davé --
A research of the molecular interactions taking place in blends of cellulose esters and phenolic polymers / M.F. Davis, X.M. Wang, M.D. Myers, J.H. Iwamiya, and S.S. Kelley --
Interchain hydrogen bonds in cellulose-poly(vinyl alcohol) characterised through differential scanning calorimetry and solid-state NMR analyses utilizing cellulose version compounds / Tetsuo Kondo and Chie Sawatari --
Supramolecular architectures of cellulose derivatives / M. Schulze, M. Seufert, C. Fakirov, H. Tebbe, V. Buchholz, and G. Wegner --
floor segregation phenomena in blends of cellulose esters / Ulrike Becker, Jason Todd, and Wolfgang G. Glasser --
Relation among the stipulations of amendment and the houses of cellulose derivatives : thermogelation of methylcellulose / J. Desbrieres, M. Hirrien, and M. Rinaudo.

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Extra resources for Cellulose Derivatives. Modification, Characterization, and Nanostructures

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PhD Thesis; University of Jena, Germany, 1991. Symp. 1995, 99, 245. ; Stein, A. J. Macromol. , Pure Appl. Chem. 1995, A32, 899. ; Liebert, T. Macromol. Symp. 1995, 99, 129. ; Klemm, D. Macromol. , Rapid Commun. 1988, 9, 569. (15) Petzold, Κ. PhD Thesis; University of Jena, Germany, 1996. ; Gohdes, M . ; Petzold, Κ. Carbohydr. Res. 1995, 277, 179. G. Macromolecules 1990, 23, 1452. G. Macromolecules 1991, 24, 1800. G. Carbohydr. Res. 1991, 220, 173. (20) Kondo, T. Carbohydr. Res. 1993, 238, 231. ; Klemm, D.

This flexibility has not previously been available to cellulose chemists. Heterogeneous Acylation Using Ti Catalyst in Amide Solvent The methods we have so far described provide access to a class of cellulose esters which was previously inaccessible, and so expand the armament of the materials scientist. These methods have the advantage that they make available the entire range of ester-DS and chain length by simply choosing the acylating agent and stoichiometry; however, the DMAc/LiCl system is less than ideal from the perspective of efficiency.

The procedure for dissolving cellulose in this system is complex, all of the components are quite hygroscopic, and the expense of lithium chloride is a practical issue. It would be desirable to find a more efficient route to these long-chain esters. The use of titanium (IV) alkoxides as catalysts for cellulose esterification in carboxylic acid diluents has been known since the work of Tamblyn and Touey in the 1960s (17). These Lewis acid catalysts require much higher temperature (120 180°C) than conventional mineral acid catalysts.

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