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By M.L Jenkins

This ebook goals to explain intimately the electron microscopy tools used to enquire advanced and fine-scale microstructures, reminiscent of these produced by way of fast-particle irradiation of metals or ion-implantation of semiconductors. specific consciousness is given to the tools used to represent small point-defect clusters akin to dislocation loops, because the assurance of this subject quite often microscopy textbooks is restricted and omits a number of the difficulties linked to the research of those defects. In-situ, high-resolution and analytical concepts also are defined. The options are illustrated with examples, which serve to offer an outline of the contribution of TEM to the current realizing of radiation harm mechanisms. The booklet could be most dear to researchers in, or moving into, the sphere of illness research in fabrics.

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The loop-plane normals (full arrows) or their projection on the image plane (broken arrows) are as shown and apply to ¯ each row of images. The four columns show simulated images for reflections (a) g = 011, ¯ (c) g = 200 and (d) g = 211. ¯ The directions of these g -vectors are shown in (b) g = 211, the images of the top row of the figure. 1, in units of ξ110 . Scale mark (at top left) 10 nm. 2. |gg · b | values for a [011] foil normal. +gg +bb ¯ [011] ¯ [211] [200] ¯ [211] [011] [010] 1 [011] ¯ 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 [111] ¯ 2 1 [110] 2 1 2 [111] [100] 1 [101] 2 1 ¯ 2 [111] • Type 4.

5(b)– (d), these displacements are resolved in the direction of three possible diffraction vectors g , that is the plots show r (θ ) = g · R (θ ). If g · R (θ ) is positive a full line is plotted, if negative a broken line is given. Above the line diagrams are simulated loop images corresponding to these diffraction geometries. The correspondence between the plots of the displacement field and the simulated images is striking. 5(b) also makes clear the origin of type 2 ‘butterfly’ images when g · b = 0.

Further complications may arise if the defect geometry is itself complicated. Black–white contrast analysis 35 For example, black–white interfaces of defects in copper sometimes display a characteristic angular fine structure. This has been interpreted by Wilson and Hirsch (1972) as due to a partial loop dissociation. This interpretation has subsequently been confirmed in weak-beam studies by Jenkins (1974). 2. Before going on to look at some specific examples of image matching it is useful to look at some further general features of black–white images, which have emerged from the simulations.

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