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By N. Schwarz

This article offers an outline of age-related adjustments in cognitive functioning and explores the results of those alterations for the self-report of attitudes and behaviours. The participants are researchers in cognitive getting old and survey method, and chapters are written to be obtainable to non-specialists. the 1st a part of the e-book offers a evaluation of past due Nineties cognitive growing old learn, overlaying issues equivalent to operating reminiscence, inhibition, autobiographical reminiscence, metacognition and a spotlight. A moment part examines concerns linked to growing old, language comprehension and interpersonal communique, whereas the ultimate experiences study into age-related changes in survey responding. Of specific curiosity is how age-related adjustments in cognitive and communiticative functioning impression the question-answering technique in learn events. Experimental examine illustrates that older and more youthful respondents are differentially plagued by query order, query wording and different gains of questionnaire layout. for that reason, many age-related variations in mentioned attitudes and behaviours may possibly mirror age-related changes within the reaction procedure instead of transformations in respondents' genuine attitudes or behaviours. Implications for study layout and mental theorizing are addressed, and useful suggestions are provided. As such, the publication will be of curiosity not just to these within the fields of cognitive growing older and gerontology, but additionally to survey methodologists and researchers in public opinion, advertising and marketing, and similar fields, who depend upon respondents' solutions to questions of their examine.

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Yet, the accumulating evidence pertaining to age-related changes in cognitive resources (Park, Chapter 3), memory (Craik, Chapter 5; Rubin, Chapter 8; Yoon, May, & Hasher, Chapter 6), metacognition (Cavanaugh, Chapter 7), and text comprehension (Kemper & Kemtes, Chapter 11) suggests that the cognitive components of the question-answering process are likely to be age sensitive. Similarly, research into age-related changes in speech processing (Wingfield, Chapter 10) and communication (Kwong See & Ryan, Chapter 12) indicates that at least some of the communicative components of the question-answering process are also likely to change over the life-span.

He discusses the major subsystems of memory and provides a detailed discussion of working memory, episodic memory, spatial memory, and memory for remote events. He provides suggestions about the implications of memory decline in these subsystems for self-report. He reviews as well the truth effect (the tendency to believe that something one heard before is true) and argues that this effect is more powerful for older than for younger adults. The focus of Chapter 6, by Carolyn Yoon, Cynthia May, and Lynn Hasher, is also on memory.

Schechter, N. Schwarz, J. Tanur, & R. ), Cognition and survey research. New York: Wiley. Riley, M. W. (1973). Aging and cohort succession: Interpretations and misinterpretations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37, 35-49. Rodgers, W. , & Herzog, A. R. (1987). Interviewing older adults: The accuracy of factual information. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 387-394. Schober, M. F. (in press). Making sense of questions: An interactional approach. In M. Sirken, D. Hermann, S. Schechter, N. Schwarz, J. Tanur, & R.

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