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By Ewa Dabrowska

Drawing at the conceptual gear of cognitive grammar, this article goals to convey order into the array of makes use of via supplying a unified semantic characterization of the dative case which subsumes either "lexically ruled" and "free" datives.

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We tend to think of ideas as objects that enter and leave our minds and of emotions as waves that overwhelm us and sweep us away (see Lakoff 1987, Lakoff & Johnson 1980, Reddy 1979). The prevalence of this kind of imagery in the metaphorical expressions we use to talk about mental experience, and the difficulties that psychologists and philosophers of the mind experienced in overcoming the "homunculus" theory, both bear witness to the power of this folk model over the imagination. ) Experiential verbs, then, evoke the sphere of awareness, just as verbs of helping evoke the concept of a "helpee" who is engaged in some action, and verbs of resistance necessarily imply the existence of a force that is resisted.

On this interpretation, (33) would be an infantile version of (34): (34) Ten dran uwiödl mi ζοης! ' I attribute my informants' reluctance to accept (33) to their inability to make sense out of the situation without knowledge of the special context described above. Since inclusion in the personal sphere depends on a number of subjective and contextual factors, it is not surprising that it is often a matter of degree. Consequently, partial acceptability is the rule for descriptions of actions involving the more peripheral elements.

76) b. Skargi zamarly jej na ustach. complaints:NOM withered her:DAT on lips:LOC 'Her complaints just petered out [as she spoke them]'. (76) c. Glos mu si% lamal. ' (77) a. R$ce mu drzaly. ' 38 The meaning of the dative (77) b. Glowa opadla mu na piersi. ' (77) c. Oczy jej lataly niespokojnie, nie mögt a si% skupid. ' (78) a. Wypsnqla/ Wyrwala mu siq niedyskretna uwaga. ' (78) b. Gniewne slowa cisngly jej na usta. ' (79) a. Wylala mi si$ herbata. ' (79) b. Przypalil mi si$ kotlet. ' (79) c. Zlamal mi siq olöwek.

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