By Jared Diamond
From groundbreaking author and philosopher, Jared Diamond comes an epic, visionary new ebook at the mysterious cave in of previous civilizations - and what this implies for our destiny. Why do a little societies flourish, whereas others founder? What occurred to the folk who made the forlorn long-abandoned statues of Easter Island or to the architects of the crumbling Maya pyramids? do we pass a similar approach, our skyscrapers sooner or later status derelict and overgrown just like the temples at Angkor Wat? Bringing jointly new facts from a startling diversity of assets and piecing jointly the myriad impacts, from weather to tradition, that make societies self-destruct, "Collapse" additionally exhibits how not like our ancestors we will reap the benefits of our wisdom of the earlier and discover ways to be survivors.
Read or Download Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Revised Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Revised Edition)
Girard 1888) (Romero 2001a). 2 The emergence of the Hyatt–Cope Progressionist School Alpheus Hyatt, a former student of Agassiz with whom he broke up, after the ‘Salem Secession,’ (see below) and who embraced evolution (to the dismay of Agassiz), visited Mammoth Cave in September 1859, much earlier than his contemporary colleagues, and collected specimens of its fauna (Bocking 1988; Romero 2001a). Hyatt’s evolutionary ideas were based on three tenets: (1) species have, as do individuals, an inevitable life cycle that includes decline as age advances; (2) for a species the preceding step before extinction is ‘degeneration’ of the species (cave creatures with their lack of eyes and pigmentation epitomized to him this degeneration); and (3) species ‘transmutation’ is the result of the speeding (‘acceleration’) or slowing (‘retardation’) of development, which, in turn, is caused by use and disuse (for a summary of Hyatt’s ideas see Brooks 1909).
26 Wyman studied under George Cuvier27 and Richard Owen28 (Gifford 1967), both staunch creationists. Because of that influence and also because he was a very modest man who, like Cuvier, avoided sweeping generalizations, Wyman essentially stuck to purely anatomical studies. For example, in his first paper on the blind cave fish A. spelaea, he reported, ‘On the most careful dissection no traces of eyes were found’ (Wyman 1843, p. 96). Later he wrote that The optic lobes existed (sic); according to the general rules of physiology these should not exist; as they bare strict relation to the sense of sight, which receives its nerve from them ( .
52) However, when dealing with specifics Putnam’s arguments always seemed to be to the point. For example, he criticized Cope’s interpretation that A. spelaea was able to survive in hypogean waters because its projecting under jaw and upward direction of the mouth renders it easy for the fish to feed at the surface of the water ( . . ) This structure also probably explains the fact of its being the sole representative of the fishes of subterranean waters. No doubt many other forms were carried into the caverns since the waters first found their way there, but most of them were like those of our present rivers, deep waters or bottom feeders.