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By Nancy Chongo Kula; Engbert Doede Botma; Kuniya Nasukawa

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Surprisingly, despite the necessary link between these two systems, they have traditionally been studied independently of one another. The lack of work focused on understanding how language perception and language production develop in concert is in part due to disciplinary boundaries. Classic work in the area of developmental perception has been most o en carried out by psychologists, whereas classic work in the area of developmental production has been most o en carried out by linguists. Communicating findings from one field to the other has only recently become commonplace as a growing number of researchers have been trained in both fields.

Like studies using elicitation, NWRTs require careful a ention to stimuli design. , 2005). Moreover, studies have revealed that young children are more accurate at producing the same sound depending on the frequency of the non-word components. Zamuner (2009) found that children are be er at producing word-initial /p/ in non-words composed of high frequency pa erns than low frequency pa erns. A standard way in the field is to control non-word stimuli for their phonotactic probabilities, that is, the likelihood that a sound has to occur in a given word environment (Storkel, 2004).

Relational analyses measure children’s productions as they relate to the adult target form (Stoel-Gammon, 1985; Stoel-Gammon and Sosa, 2006). indd 31 10/1/2010 10:41:27 AM This page intentionally left blank 3 Features Bert Botma, Nancy C. Kula and Kuniya Nasukawa Chapter Overview 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction Feature Theory Element Theory Voicing and Nasality in Zoque Zoque Analysis Conclusion Acknowledgements Notes 33 36 42 50 55 62 62 62 1. Introduction A fundamental assumption in the study of language sounds is that the segmented parts of the speech continuum (speech sounds) can be decomposed into smaller properties.

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