By Robert W. Bruce
This guide covers the overall region of lubrication and tribology in all its points: friction, put on lubricants (liquid, sturdy, and gas), greases, lubrication rules, functions to varied mechanisms, layout ideas of units incorporating lubrication, upkeep, lubrication scheduling, and standardized exams; in addition to environmental difficulties and conservation. the data contained in those volumes will reduction in attaining potent lubrication for keep an eye on of friction and put on, and is one other step to enhance knowing of the advanced elements thinking about tribology. either metric and English devices are supplied all through either volumes
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Extra info for CRC Handbook of Lubrication: Theory and Practice of Tribology, Volume II: Theory and Design
Chemisorption is a monolayer process. Bond strengths are a function of chemical activity of the solid surface (surface energy), degree of surface coverage of that adsorbate or another adsorbate, reactivity of the adsorbing species, and its structure. The higher the surface energy of the solid surface, the stronger the tendency to chemisorb. In general, the high-energy, low-atomic density crystallographic planes will chemisorb much more rapidly than will the high-atomic density, low-surface energy planes.
Under applied stresses, the (110) set of planes is commonly observed to slip over one another in the body-centered cubic system. The (111) planes are those upon which slip and cleavage in face-centered cubic materials is most frequent. The planes in Figure 3 are only three among these which can appear at the surface. X-ray diffraction reveals a host of different crystalline planes in a polycrystalline sample. The atoms in the three planes of Figure 3 are arranged as indicated in Figure 4. The (111) planes have the closest atomic packing and the lowest surface energy in the face-centered cubic system and, therefore, are least likely to interact chemically with environmental constituents.
Reactivity of the adsorbent is also important. Of the halogen family fluorine will adsorb more strongly than chlorine, chlorine than bromine, and bromine than iodine. The structure of the adsorbing species is also significant as can be demonstrated with simple hydrocarbons. If ethane, ethylene, and acetylene are adsorbed on an iron surface, tenacity of the chemisorbed films is in direct relation to the degree of bond unsaturation. Acetylene is much more strongly bound to the surface than ethylene, which in turn is more strongly bound than ethane.