By Anthony R. Zito
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Extra info for Creating Environmental Policy in the European Union
For example, DG XI will need substantial bargaining to persuade the Commission to accept an environmental proposal when it is opposed by more prestigious DGs. Equally important is the decisional latitude of the organizations plugging the environmental proposal. When several member states sought to regain control of environmental policy in the early 1990s, the discussion constrained DG XI’s leverage to promote contentious proposals. To keep a range of issues, for example, ﬁscal policy, 36 Creating Environmental Policy in the European Union within their own purview, member-state governments will constrain the kinds of proposals that the Commission can develop.
169–70). Action channels structure interactions between players (both those within and outside the EU institutions), their point of entrance into the game, and who has the advantages in the game. Within this EU channel are institutional actors with the power to hinder or veto an environmental initiative. Each of the main EU institutions contains actors who act as potential blocking or ‘veto points’ to any initiative. At the same time, however, these institutions serve as access points to set issues and concerns on the larger EU agenda (Peters, 1994).
10). Hence, actors rely on a set of beliefs or institutional guidelines and norms in order to make a choice. The reason for continuing the analytical distinction between interests and these other concepts is that circumstances do occur where interests hold sway. This is most true when interests are of critical direct importance to a speciﬁc set of inﬂuential actors at an EU veto point. There are speciﬁc actors within the EU institutional process (the members of Commission DGs, member-state governments, and the EP committees) who can utilize the veto points to block new initiatives.