By Katja Weber
Examines postwar debates inside of Germany and Japan over the best way to advertise household and local order.
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Extra info for Cultures of Order: Leadership, Language, and Social Reconstruction in Germany and Japan
60 This debate is better understood, instead, as the opposition of hierarchical and heteronomous modes of argumentation. Still, considering the chicken-and-egg problem of agency and structure, we always start somewhere. In Germany (and perhaps in all cases), the debate had much to do with the proper starting point. Its political consequences were to pit essentially Lockean claims against Kantian republicanism. To the degree one adopts Locke’s position that agency is on some level inviolable, then this moral authority was always retained within the legal institutions of the German state (and absent, incidentally, when these institutions were usurped).
This is not a matter of rights, nor of the mere existence of laws and contracts, but rather a capacity to promise and, more importantly, a social obligation to treat promises as meaningful. Tied to each type of speech act, then, are distinctive claims about how social order (rule) becomes possible. Assertives build order out of authority that is assumed to exist elsewhere (for liberals, intrinsic rights). Directives link order to enforcement. And commissives predicate order on a social bond that—to the degree it exists—secures respect for promises.
29 A question can also be construed, for example, as a request or demand that the listener produce the requested information. ”). 30 Specifically, Onuf argues for exactly three illocutionary functions. Speech can describe a state of affairs (an assertive speech act). It can request another person to bring about a certain state of affairs (a directive speech act). Or it can constitute a promise on the part of a speaker to bring about a certain state of affairs (a commissive speech act). 31 To say that only these speech acts are possible is to say that all speech with social and normative functions—as distinct from utterances or exclamations that do not conjoin social and normative purpose—can perform its work in only three ways.