By William J. Baker, Michael E. Hyland, Hans Van Rappard and Arthur W. Staats (Eds.)
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Additional info for Current Issues in Theoretical Psychology
Going back to the key concepts of 'thought' and 'experience ' and keeping their dual relationship in mind, it seems well to distinguish between experiential confusion and ignorance, and between conceptual confusion and ignorance. That gives us four categories (see Table 1) that I will discuss briefly. Conceptual Confusion. This could be defined (on the syntactic level) as the result of entertaining inconsistent theories or thoughts and (on the semantic level) as the result of entertaining theories that are incompatible with experience.
Even for the velocity of the electrons in atoms, we can draw an analogy with the velocity of the planets around the sun, although quantum mechanics demonstrates the restrictions of such a comparison,. In some way we can project physical properties onto objects; we can externalize them, and we can have the illusion that they have, to some extent, an objective status. A second kind of properties are physical properties that seem to be more elusive, but that we can still project onto the world around us, independently of our experience, although their roots lie in our experience.
Are they just the result of biological evolution, do they have survival value? It seems likely that logic reasoning will have to go together with intuition, private experience, heuristic insight. The problem does not become less interesting for that reason. We may also view the reductionistic approach as a representation that is complementary to a top-down approach in which we explain the role of the parts from their function in the whole. Both representations are necessary for full understanding: for understanding the whole we must know the parts, for understanding the parts we must know the whole (Blaise Pascal).