By Ernest R. McDowell, Don Greer
Few airplane designs have had as unusual or complicated a history because the P-40 sequence. in truth one wonders why the Air Corps elected to offer the H-75P a designation except a touch quantity within the P-36 sequence because it was once essentially a re-engined P-36A. Spin-offs from the P-36 layout may consequence not just within the P-40 however the XP-37, XP-42, XP-46, XP-53, XP-60, and XP-62 plus those given Y designations and numerous sprint numbers.
Ignoring the Curtiss Hawk biplanes, the genealogy of the P-40 would appear to have its faucet roots within the XP-934 Curtiss fast of 1932 classic. even though a few adventure within the low-wing monoplane style used to be won while the corporate produced its famed Shrike sequence of assault planes, the fast, or XP-31 because it was once distinctive by means of the Air Corps, used to be their first low-wing pursuit layout. via a type of abnormal quirks, the quick at the beginning was once powered via an in-line engine which gave method to a extra robust radial, simply the opposite of the P-36 to P-40 layout improvement. The XP-31 was once no longer profitable with both engine and the layout used to be quickly deserted (It did earn the doubtful contrast of being the final U.S. pursuit airplane with a hard and fast touchdown gear). The Curtiss Company's fortunes took a downward flip within the pursuit box while the Boeing P-26A used to be chosen by means of the Air Corps over the XP-31.
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How does one go about designing a good aeroservoelastic system if the plant is not well modelled? This question takes us to adaptive control design. A practical ASE system must operate at different design conditions representative of an aircraft flying at various speeds, altitudes and loadings. In many cases, the aerodynamic behaviour of the aircraft changes drastically when going from one flight regime to another, such as from subsonic to supersonic speeds. If not properly compensated for, the resulting aerodynamic changes (such as appearance of shock waves) can cause a large reduction in aeroelastic stability margin, perhaps leading to a catastrophic condition such as flutter.
This implies that as an accurate unsteady aerodynamics plant model is infeasible for aeroservoelastic design, adaptive plant identification in closed loop is the only practical alternative. 5 Adaptive Control Design Following the above discussion, it is logical that the final step in aeroservoelastic system design should be the derivation of adaptive control laws that can fully account and compensate for the parametric uncertainties and variations in the characteristics of the aeroelastic system.
24) [AG ] = [A] − [F][Spm ][Sm ]−1 [C]. The Kalman filter gain matrix is then given by ( ) [L] = [Re ][C]T + [F][Spm ] [Sm ]−1 . 25) Clearly, the matrices [Sm ], [Sp ], [Spm ] act as the cost coefficients of a quadratic objective function for determining [L] in a manner similar to [Q], [R], [S] for the LQR regulator. These should be suitably selected in the observer design process. The observer’s dynamics must be designed to be stable and much faster than the regulator. It is crucial for practical considerations that the derived control laws must be robust with respect to modelling uncertainties (process noise) and sensor (measurement) noise at a selected range of operating conditions.