By R. B. Keey and P. V. Danckwerts (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Drying. Principles and Practice
Other uses of these charts will unfold. References 1. BARCLAY, S. , A Study of Drying, Inst. Fuel, 1951. 2. BRYANT, W. H. , Ind. Eng. Chem. 25, 820 (1953). 3. , VEncyclopedic, ou Dictionnaire Raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers, Le Breton, Paris (1751); facsimile edition, Friedrich Frommann Verlag, Bad Cannstadt. 4. GROSVENOR, W. , Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs. 1, 184 (1908). 5. HOUGEN, O. , WATSON, K. M. and RAGATZ, R. , 1, p. 123, Wiley, New York, 1954. 6. -Ing. Techn. 25, 575 (1953).
If the wall has stretched beyond its elastic limit, the structure will not retract to its unstressed state on the removal of the moisture. A more quantitive explanation of the drying stresses may be obtained evaluating the behaviour of an ideal elastic material. 41) where R is the half-width of the slab, XmSLX the maximum moisture content along the centreline and X\ the surface-moisture content. 42) in which Xo is the uniform moisture content of the slab before drying. Since the slab cannot warp, the slab will undergo a uniform longitudinal shrinkage ζ (m/m) which introduces a drying stress r (kN/m2), τ = £(ζ-δ).
The number of layers n can be found by plotting ψ/Χ* (l—ψ) against ψ; the extrapolated line from small values of ψ will fall below the smoothed data by a factor (1 — ψη) as given in Fig. 4. Moisture-Solid 27 Relationships Although X* corresponds to the amount of moisture in a monolayer, the first layer is only complete at saturation according to this model (Fig. 5). 16), as ψ approaches 1, is «^; the maximum equilibrium-moisture content is simply the product of the number of layers and the amount in each.