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By M. H. Loretto (auth.)

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Extra resources for Electron Beam Analysis of Materials

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The situation is summarized in Fig. 4. The relative probability of generating X-rays of the various possible energies from a given element is controlled initially by the incident electron energy and secondly by the number of different possible ways by which the ionized atom can return to its ground state. 11) where nE is the number of X-rays generated of energy E, Q is the ionization cross section (i'e. e. the probability of the ionized atom returning to the ground state by emitting the specific X-ray photon), N is the number of atoms in the irradiated volume and I the incident electron flux.

4. Thus the ionization cross sections, taken in conjunction with the fluorescent yields, and the probabilities of the various transitions, control the intensities of the Auger signals generated for a given beam current. The Auger signal generated by electron irradiation is superimposed on a high ELECTRON-SPECIMEN INTERACTIONS NfEJ E (eV) Fig. 3) and a schematic output is shown in Fig. 10. 3); and a region between these two. This region is where the Auger electrons and other loss electrons will be found, but they can be seen only if the vertical scale N(E) is magnified, and/or differentiated.

The spatial resolution of backscattered electron images is also affected by electrons which suffer two or more high angle scattering events and which emerge from the specimen travelling in a direction such that they are collected by the backscattered electron detector. The intensity profile of back scattered electrons will therefore appear qualitatively similar to that for secondary electrons illustrated in Fig. 5. Similar arguments apply in terms of adjusting the background level and thus rejecting the electrons originating from weii outside the area iiiuminated by the probe.

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