Download Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation by Michael Frassetto PDF

By Michael Frassetto

In the Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe , medieval professional Michael Frassetto amasses the proof for the defense—and prosecution—of this little-understood transition period within the heritage of Western civilization. masking approximately 1,000 years of history—from the past due historical interval throughout the first centuries of the center Ages—this concise yet thorough reference paintings examines the main figures, areas, occasions, and concepts of barbarian Europe.

This identify chronicles the traditional Visigoths, the rule of thumb of Benedict, and the sacking of Rome. The easy-to-access alphabetical entries and essays provide greater than an insignificant chronicling of kings and battles and discover the social and cultural heritage of the period, with unique awareness performed to the function of women.

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Some of the great urban skyscrapers of the twentieth century—the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, for example—went up during the 1930s. These commercial enterprises often boasted lavish interior decoration in addition to their striking exteriors. The decade also witnessed the evolution of the International Style, an approach to design that incorporated the modernist theories of many architects from around the world, giving added meaning to its name. With the unrest brought on by World War I, the social upheavals in its aftermath, and the clouds of a new world war gathering in Europe, a number of prominent European architects fled to the relative safety of the United States, and their influence hastened the internationalization of American design.

With houses tightly arranged on a block, there existed little room for a driveway running beside the structure, but alleys could bisect a city block, providing access for cars behind the homes. Alleys made the driveway unnecessary, eliminated the aesthetic distractions that garages and drives presented, and allowed the architect to focus on the house itself rather than an appendage for sheltering vehicles. They also permitted a developer to place houses more closely together, thereby making up for the land lost with the construction of an alley.

But for the wine industry as a whole, problems continued throughout Prohibition. The costs of maintaining vineyards, along with the loss of domestic sales, especially to restaurants, crippled the industry, and by the time of Repeal, American wine producers faced a long road back to profitability. More than two-thirds of the wine consumed after Repeal came from dessert varieties, like port, sherry, and muscatel. For the industry to grow, table wines, never particularly popular in the United States, had to gain a base of customers.

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