Download Encyclopedia of Energy Volume III (Encyclopedia of Energy by Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D PDF

By Robert U Ayres, Robert Costanza, Jose Goldemberg, Marija D Ilic, Eberhard Jochem, Robert Kaufmann, Amory B Lovins, Mohan Munasinghe, R K Pachauri, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo, Per Peterson, Lee Schipper, Margaret Slade, Vaclav Smil, Ernst Worrell, Cutler J. C

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And Hannon, B. (1981). Energy cost of living, 1972–1973. Energy 6, 1433–1450. Odum, H. T. (1996). ’’ Wiley, New York. Schulze, P. ). (1999). Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. C. Slesser, M. ). (1974). Energy analysis workshop on methodology and conventions, August 25–30, Guldsmedhyttan, Sweden. International Federation of Institutes of Advanced Study, Stockholm, Sweden. [Reprinted in Energy accounting as a policy analysis tool, Committee print for the 94th Congress, 2nd session, Serial CC, 68–391.

Houghton, J. , et al. ). (2001). ‘‘Climate Change 2001. ’’ Cambridge Univ. Press, New York. Irving, P. M. ). (1991). S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC. Smil, V. (1985). ’’ Plenum, New York. Smil, V. (1991). ’’ Wiley, New York. Smil, V. (2000). ’’ Scientific American Library, New York. Smil, V. (2001). ’’ MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Smil, V. (2002). ’’ MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Goods and Services: Energy Costs ROBERT A. HERENDEEN Illinois Natural History Survey Champaign, Illinois, United States 1.

1 Energy Intensities Very few vertical analyses have been performed on specific products, such as automobiles and agricultural chemicals. S. I–O economic tables. One assumes that dollars are a satisfactory numeraire for allocating embodied energy. S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. These are used with a version of Eq. 1. One immediate question is whether the energy intensities do vary among sectors. If not, the energy 38 Goods and Services: Energy Costs TABLE III Energy Intensities of Consumer Expenditures, Updated (by Approximations) to 1999 Expenditure category Energy intensity (Btu/$1999) Food 9095 Alcohol and tobacco 5457 Housing 5457 Residential energy 105000 Gasoline and motor oil 115000 Auto purchase, maintenance 10914 Public transportation 20000 Apparel Health, personal care 8025 8560 Entertainment and communication 5457 Education and reading 7276 Miscellaneous 7490 Contributions 7490 Insurance, pension 3638 Asset change 8560 consequences of spending a dollar for any good or service would be the same, and the details of expenditures would be irrelevant.

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