By Hari Singh Nalwa, Foreword by Richard E. Smalley
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 7
Geer and co-workers have recently investigated the use of UFM for integrated-circuit (IC) and nanomaterial characterization [54–57]. The surface mechanical variation of IC interconnect test structures consisting of inlaid (damascene) Al lines in a low-dielectric-constant polymer (benzocyclobutene) was investigated with respect to variations in the polymer modulus resulting from IC processing. The damascene technique used in IC processing consists of the formation of recessed trenches and vias in a dielectric layer via reactive plasma processing (so-called reactive ion etching) .
The inset in Figure 9 plots the variation of threshold amplitude against increasing force. 8 GPa using a known tip radius and the absolute vibration amplitude (determined from an optical vibrometer). Using this methodology, Young’s modulus measurements have been undertaken for materials ranging from nanoporous silicates (Er ∼ 2 GPa) to Si3 N4 (Er ∼ 300 GPa). Application of this technique by Dinelli et al. reported relatively large sample-to-sample variations of modulus measured using this method .
The critical concept for mechanical imaging via UFM is the inherently nonlinear interaction of a scanning-probe cantilevered tip in contact with a surface that is undergoing outof-plane ultrasonic vibrations at a frequency far exceeding the resonant frequency of the cantilever . In such a case, the cantilever is inertially damped and, on the ultrasonic time scale, effectively rigid . Hence, the surface rigidity of materials with contact stiffness orders of magnitude higher than the cantilever spring constant can be quantitatively measured.