Download Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes by Carl Waldman PDF

By Carl Waldman

A entire reference paintings discussing greater than one hundred fifty Indian tribes of all North the USA, in addition to prehistoric peoples civilizations. equipped alphabetically by means of tribe, the informative yet obtainable textual content summarizes the historic list destinations, migrations, contacts with whites, wars, and so on. additionally covers Indian lifeways, together with language households, technique of subsistence, homes, boats, instruments, garments, artwork, legends, rituals. Over 250 fantastically exact, unique colour illustrations improve the textual content, eleven maps convey a number of the Indian tradition parts plus tribal destinations, offering a precious body of reference. word list. Bibliography.

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But the traders consistently cheated them by charging them fees for food, protection, and other inflated or made-up expenses. In 1799, the czar granted the charter of the Russian American Company, creating a monopoly that competed in the 1800s with the British-run Hudson’s Bay Company for the world fur market. Those Aleut who had survived the violence of the past years and the diseases carried to them by Europeans were essential to this huge fur operation. They were, after all, some of the best sea-mammal hunters in the world.

And the Spanish began imposing taxes on the Indians, demanding a percentage of their crops as well as labor from them. In 1695, the Lower Pima rebelled, carrying out some violence against missionaries as well as looting and burning of Spanish property. Spanish officials sent in soldiers, who quickly put down the rebellion. Some Lower Pima escaped northward and joined the Upper Pima on the Gila and Salt Rivers. Some descendants of the rebels revolted again in 1751. An Akimel O’odham by the name of Luis Oacpicagigua, who served the Spanish as a captain-general against other Indians, began to resent Spanish treatment of his people.

A particular pipe passed down through the generations often was a tribe’s most valued object. A pipe might also serve as a passport through hostile territory. Sometimes non-Indian explorers and traders carried them to show their peaceful intentions. The bowl of the calumet was carved from pipestone. This kind of stone is also known as catlinite after 19th-century frontier painter George Catlin, who lived among a number of tribes and created many images of individuals and daily life. The red, pink, or gray stone is found in Great Lakes country.

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