By Carl Waldman
Encyclopedia of local American Indians is a complete, obtainable consultant to greater than one hundred fifty North American Indian countries. equipped alphabetically by means of tribe or crew, the e-book summarizes the ancient record--such as destinations, migrations, contacts with non-Indians, wars--and comprises present-day tribal prestige. Readers gets a quick examine conventional Indian lifeways, together with language, households, garments, homes, boats, instruments, arts, legends, and rituals. This revised version good points: vital advancements in Indian political matters and cultural affairs elevated assurance of prehistoric Indians in addition to Mesoamerican civilizations rising casinos within the Nineties, reminiscent of Foxwoods within the Pequot reservation in Connecticut contemporary activism, reminiscent of demonstrations at Plymouth, Massachusetts and the blockade on the Oka and Kahnawake reserves close to Montreal. using local names back through sure tribes, resembling the Inuit, instead of these utilized by means of non-Indians.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes (Facts on File Library of American History)
All the Algonquians hunted deer, rabbit, squirrel, beaver, and various birds, such as turkey, partridge, duck, and goose. Algonquians in the northern woods also hunted moose, elk, and bear. Some lived far enough north to track caribou herds as well. And some Algonquians living near the prairies of the Mississippi River valley hunted buffalo. Before Europeans brought the horse to North America, Native Americans had to hunt on foot. In addition to spears, arrows, and clubs, they used traps, snares, and deadfalls, devices that drop heavy objects on the prey.
Each band, which was made up of extended families, had a headman who was chosen informally for his leadership abilities and military prowess. But other warriors could launch raids without the headman’s permission. Shamans presided over religious rituals. The Apache believed in many supernatural beings. They considered Ussen (also spelled Yusn), the Giver of Life, the most powerful of the supernatural beings. The Gans, or Mountain Spirits, who supposedly brought agriculture to the people and who are the guardians of wildlife, were especially important in Apache ceremonies.
To the north of the Apalachee lived the CREEK. Although both peoples spoke dialects of the Muskogean language family, they were enemies. The less numerous Apalachee managed to hold their own against the larger tribe. In 1528, the Apalachee attacked and drove off an early Spanish expedition led by the explorer Pánfilo de Narváez. But Hernando de Soto and his men lived among the tribe in the winter of 1539–40 during the first part of their expedition throughout much of the Southeast. Some of the more militant Apalachee resented the presence of the conquistadores and quarreled with them.