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By Robert Allen Meyers

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, Analytical Chemistry

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Piezoelectric Devices It is well known that certain crystalline substances such as quartz generate an electrical voltage when subjected to physical compression. Similarly, it is possible to induce a constant frequency of physical oscillation of the crystal planes when a regular alternating voltage is applied to such a crystal. Piezoelectric crystals coated with thin films of selective adsorbent have found application as conventional gas detectors when employed as physical oscillators. The mass changes caused by the adsorption of gases to the crystal cause the oscillation frequency to change, f, in proportion to adsorbed mass as f = −2 f q2 (Pq Vq )m f , where f q is the quartz crystal frequency, Pq is the quartz density, Vq is the velocity of the wave in the quartz, and m f is the mass per unit area for the deposited matter on the quartz surface.

9. Has high sensitivity Has high spatial resolution Is applicable to a wide range of samples Does not discriminate against any component Has no influence on surface composition and structure As expected, no single technique possesses all these requirements. The battery of methods that are available is outlined in Table XII. From these data it is clear that the overall strategy is the study of information carried by emitted photons, ions, or electrons after perturbation of a We now describe briefly the principles of a number of important methods.

The constants gq and g0 are the statistical weights (degeneracy), which account for the fact that there are often several states with the same energy E q and E 0 , respectively. The Boltzmann expression predicts the number of atoms in the excited state, relative to the number of atoms in the ground state. 48 × 10−6 (gq /g0 = 3), respectively. Another way to use the above equation is to generate a plot for the Boltzmann factor (e−(Eq −E0 )/kT ) as a function of the excitation temperature, as shown in Fig.

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