By Dr. Brian F. Hasson (auth.), Luther W. Brady MD, Theodore E. Yaeger MD (eds.)
This finished encyclopedia, comprising quite a lot of entries written by means of prime specialists, offers precise details on radiation oncology, together with the latest advancements within the box. it is going to be of specific price for easy and medical scientists in academia, perform, and and also will be of gain to these in comparable fields, scholars, lecturers, and laypersons.
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Radiation Oncology
The vertex is directed to the pubic symphysis and is joined to the umbilicus by the urachal remnant. The fundus vesicae urinariae contains the bladder trigone defined by the orifices of the ureters and urethra. The collum vesicae ore neck of the bladder refers to the area encompassing the urethral opening. In females, the body of the uterus overhangs the superior surface of the bladder and close to the posterior surface and at base of the bladder lays the anterior wall of the vagina. The bladder neck is directly related to the pelvic fascia surrounding the upper urethra.
Floxuridine is metabolized to 5-FU and is cell cycle specific. It is used specifically for patients with gastrointestinal malignancies and liver metastases. It is given as an intrahepatic infusion. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was first synthesized in 1956. It primarily inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking the conversion of dUMP to dTMP. It is still widely used and frequently concurrently with radiotherapy in gastrointestinal, primary head and neck, and advanced breast tumors, and topically for basal cell carcinomas.
Bladder Bladder. Table 1 2002 TNM classification of urinary bladder cancer T-primary tumor Ta Noninvasive papillary carcinoma Tis Carcinoma in situ: “flat tumor” T1 Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue T2 Tumor invades muscle T2a Tumor invades superficial muscle (inner half) T2b Tumor invades deep muscle (outer half) T3 Tumor invades perivesical tissue T3a Microscopically T3b Macroscopically (extravesical mass) T4 Tumor invades any of the following T4a T4a Tumor invades prostate, uterus, or vagina T4b T4b Tumor invades pelvic wall or abdominal wall N-lymph nodes NO No regional lymph node metastases N1 Metastases in a single lymph node 2 cm or less in greatest dimension N2 Metastases in a single lymph node more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension, or multiple lymph nodes, none more than 5 cm in greatest dimension N3 Metastases in a lymph node more than 5 cm in greatest dimension M-distant metastases M0 No distant metastases M1 Distant metastases Epidemiology Bladder carcinoma is the second most common genitourinary malignancy.