By Itzik Ben-Gan
Take a close examine the interior structure of T-SQL—and unveil the ability of set-based querying—with complete reference and suggestion from the specialists. Database builders and directors get top practices, pattern databases, and code to grasp the intricacies of the programming language—solving complicated issues of real-world suggestions. notice how you can: comprehend logical and actual question processing observe a strategy to optimize question tuning clear up relational department difficulties Use CTEs and rating capabilities to simplify and optimize strategies combination info with a variety of concepts, together with tiebreakers, pivoting, histograms, and grouping components Use the pinnacle alternative in a question to change facts question really good information buildings with recursive good judgment, materialized course, or nested units suggestions PLUS—Improve your good judgment and get to the guts of querying issues of common sense puzzles Get code and database samples on the net
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Take an in depth examine the interior structure of T-SQL—and unveil the facility of set-based querying—with accomplished reference and recommendation from the specialists. Database builders and directors get top practices, pattern databases, and code to grasp the intricacies of the programming language—solving advanced issues of real-world options.
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Extra info for Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2005: T-SQL Querying (Solid Quality Learning)
Columns in corresponding positions must match in their datatypes or be implicitly convertible. Finally, an interesting aspect of set operations is that they treat NULLs as equal. More Info You can find a more detailed discussion about set operations in Chapter 5. Conclusion Understanding logical query processing phases and the unique aspects of SQL is important to get into the special mindset required to program in SQL. By being familiar with those aspects of the language, you will be able to produce efficient solutions and explain your choices.
According to SQL's rules, just the presence of an aggregate function that binds to a particular list makes that SELECT list grouped, even if it has no GROUP BY or HAVING clauses. T1; This is a grouped SELECT, because there is a MAX aggregate. Because it is a grouped SELECT, the use of the nonaggregated column c1 is illegal and the query is incorrect. An important role of the algebrizer is to identify any semantic errors in the statement. T1; This query is incorrect for the same reason as the previous one, but it is clear that we have to complete aggregate binding for the entire query just to realize this.
Customerid ORDER BY orderid DESC) AS OA; Table 1-14. Two Most Recent Orders for Each Customer, Including Customers that Made No Orders customerid city orderid FISSA Madrid NULL FRNDO Madrid 2 FRNDO Madrid 1 KRLOS Madrid 5 KRLOS Madrid 4 MRPHS Zion 6 More Info For more details on the APPLY operator, please refer to Chapter 7. PIVOT The PIVOT operator essentially allows you to rotate, or pivot, data from a state of groups of multiple rows to a state of multiple columns in a single row per group, performing aggregations along the way.