Download The Chemistry and Technology of Cellulosic Copolymers by Professor Dr. Ali Hebeish, Dr. James Thomas Guthrie (auth.) PDF

By Professor Dr. Ali Hebeish, Dr. James Thomas Guthrie (auth.)

Many very good volumes were written at the chemistry of cellulose and its derivatives. Judging through the variety of meetings which were assembled to accommodate the subject, cellulose and its derivatives proceed to arouse nice clinical curiosity. Matching this curiosity has been the improvement in copolymer technology and know-how. In either situations the driver has been the quest for items having helpful, new or attention-grabbing homes. It seemed inevitable that those strategies will be introduced jointly at your time within the learn and improvement of cellulosic copolymers. that point has arrived. In assembling this article our target used to be to offer an informative account of the chemistry and expertise of cellulosic copolymers. As such, we meant that the contents be of curiosity to all these interested by the construction and use of cellulosic items even if in educational or commercial circles. Sections of the textual content can be of worth in undergraduate and post-graduate instructing, supplied the scholar is given tips in following the textual content. the amount is split into 8 chapters, every one facing components that are proper to an below­ status of cellulosic copolymers. each one bankruptcy contains its personal bibliography and in all fairness self-contained.

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Extra resources for The Chemistry and Technology of Cellulosic Copolymers

Example text

It is important to note, however, that modification of the technique of grafting as given above depends on the reactivity of monomer and type of initiator, for not all monomers respond to all types of initiators under all conditions. 2. Conditions Affecting Grafting nature of the activated center depends also on the initiator. Hence, the choice of a modification of the grafting technique requires an understanding of the nature of monomer and initiator. It is also of importance to point out that whether grafting takes place near the site of production of primary radicals or through some chain-transfer process after the growth of the macroradical, will depend on the catalyst system concerned, the nature of the cellulose material, and the nature of the growing macro radical.

Let us define the conditional probability, P12' that a chain ending in monomer I will add monomer 2: (38) and (39) Given the symmetry of Eqs. (3) and (31) to (35) with respect to interchange of the subcripts in Eqs. ) , = 1 - P 21 . (40) (41) It can be shown from Eqs. (37), (38) and (40) that (42) Furthermore, the sequence of monomer units along the chain is well described by these probabilities. Actually, there the distribution of sequences will be such that we must describe them by average values.

3. Grafting Reactions Here, too, it is worth noting that hydrocellulose, in spite of its high crystallinity and low reactivity, showed a substantial graft yield which was nearly equal to that of cotton, particularly when grafting was performed under nitrogen by separate initiation and grafting (Method I). On the other hand, when grafting was carried out under the same conditions but in air (Method II), hydrocellulose proved considerably less amenable to grafting than native cotton. This may be because the active sites produced by CeIV on the cellulose backbone would be expected to occur mainly on the surface of the fiber in case of hydrocellulose.

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